```TEX(1)                                                                  TEX(1)

NAME
tex, virtex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

SYNOPSIS
tex [options] [& format ] [ file | \ commands ]

DESCRIPTION
Run the TeX typesetter on file, usually creating file.dvi.  If the file
argument has no extension, ".tex" will be appended to it.  Instead of a
filename,  a  set of TeX commands can be given, the first of which must
start with a backslash.  With a &format argument TeX uses  a  different
set  of  precompiled  commands,  contained in format.fmt; it is usually
better to use the -fmt format option instead.

TeX formats the interspersed text and commands contained in  the  named
files  and  outputs a typesetter independent file (called DVI, which is
short for DeVice Independent).  TeX's  capabilities  and  language  are
described  in The TeX for nroffbook.  TeX is normally used with a large
body of precompiled macros, and there are several  specific  formatting
systems,  such  as  LaTeX,  which  require the support of several macro
files.

This version of TeX looks at its command line to see what name  it  was
called  under.  If they exist, then both initex and virtex are symbolic
links to the tex executable.  When called as initex (or when  the  -ini
option  is given) it can be used to precompile macros into a .fmt file.
When called as virtex it will use the plain format.  When called  under
any  other  name,  TeX  will use that name as the name of the format to
use.  For example, when called as tex the tex format is used, which  is
identical  to the plain format.  The commands defined by the plain for-
mat are documented in The TeX for nroffbook.  Other  formats  that  are
often available include latex and amstex.

The  non-option command line arguments to the TeX program are passed to
it as the first input line.  (But it is often easier to  type  extended
arguments  as the first input line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble up
or misinterpret TeX's favorite symbols, like  backslashes,  unless  you
quote  them.)   As  described in The TeX for nroffbook, that first line
should begin with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &formatname.

The normal usage is to say
tex paper
to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the ``jobname'',
and is used in forming output filenames.  If TeX doesn't get a filename
in the first line, the jobname is texput.  When looking for a file, TeX
looks  for  the  name  with  and  without  the default extension (.tex)
appended, unless the name already contains that extension.  If paper is
the  ``jobname'', a log of error messages, with rather more detail than
normally appears on the screen, will appear in paper.log, and the  out-
put file will be in paper.dvi.

This version of TeX can look in the first line of the file paper.tex to
see if it begins with the magic sequence %&.  If the first line  begins
with  %&format -translate-file tcxname then TeX will use the named for-
mat and translation table tcxname to process the source  file.   Either
the  format  name  or the -translate-file specification may be omitted,
but not both.  This overrides the format selection based on the name by
which  the  program  is  invoked.   The -parse-first-line option or the
parse_first_line configuration variable controls whether this behaviour
is enabled.

The  e  response to TeX's error prompt causes the system default editor
to start up at the current line of the current file.   The  environment
variable TEXEDIT can be used to change the editor used.  It may contain
a string with "%s" indicating where the filename goes and "%d" indicat-
ing  where  the  decimal  line  number  (if  any) goes.  For example, a
TEXEDIT string for emacs can be set with the sh command
TEXEDIT="emacs +%d %s"; export TEXEDIT

A convenient file in the library is null.tex, containing nothing.  When
TeX  can't find a file it thinks you want to input, it keeps asking you
for another filename; responding `null' gets you out of the loop if you
don't  want  to  input  anything.  You can also type your EOF character
(usually control-D).

OPTIONS
This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

-enc   Enable the encTeX extensions.  This option is only effective  in
combination  with  -ini.  For documentation of the encTeX exten-
sions see http://www.olsak.net/enctex.html.

-file-line-error
Print error messages in the form file:line:error which is  simi-
lar to the way many compilers format them.

-no-file-line-error
Disable printing error messages in the file:line:error style.

-file-line-error-style
This is the old name of the -file-line-error option.

-fmt format
Use  format as the name of the format to be used, instead of the
name by which TeX was called or a %& line.

-halt-on-error
Exit with an error code when an error is encountered during pro-
cessing.

-help  Print help message and exit.

-ini   Start  in INI mode, which is used to dump formats.  The INI mode
can be used for typesetting, but no  format  is  preloaded,  and
basic initializations like setting catcodes may be required.

-interaction mode
Sets  the  interaction  mode.  The mode can be either batchmode,
nonstopmode, scrollmode,  and  errorstopmode.   The  meaning  of
these modes is the same as that of the corresponding \commands.

-ipc   Send  DVI  output  to a socket as well as the usual output file.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

-ipc-start
As -ipc, and starts  the  server  at  the  other  end  as  well.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

-jobname name
Use  name for the job name, instead of deriving it from the name
of the input file.

Sets path searching debugging flags according  to  the  bitmask.
See the Kpathsea manual for details.

-mktex fmt
Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

-mltex Enable  MLTeX  extensions.   Only  effective in combination with
-ini.

-no-mktex fmt
Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

-output-comment string
Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

-output-directory directory
Write output files in directory instead of  the  current  direc-
tory.   Look  up  input files in directory first, then along the
environment variable.

-parse-first-line
If the first line of the main input file begins with %& parse it
to look for a dump name or a -translate-file option.

-no-parse-first-line
Disable parsing of the first line of the main input file.

-progname name
Pretend to be program name.  This affects both the  format  used
and the search paths.

-recorder
Enable  the filename recorder.  This leaves a trace of the files
opened for input and output in a file with extension .fls.

-shell-escape
Enable the \write18{command} construct.  The command can be  any
shell  command.  This construct is normally disallowed for secu-
rity reasons.

-no-shell-escape
Disable the \write18{command} construct, even if it  is  enabled
in the texmf.cnf file.

-src-specials
Insert source specials into the DVI file.

-src-specials where
Insert source specials in certain places of the DVI file.  where
is a comma-separated value list: cr, display, hbox,  math,  par,
parent, or vbox.

-translate-file tcxname
Use  the  tcxname  translation table to set the mapping of input
characters and re-mapping of output characters.

-default-translate-file tcxname
Like -translate-file except that a %&  line  can  overrule  this
setting.

-version
Print version information and exit.

ENVIRONMENT
See  the  Kpathsearch  library documentation (the `Path specifications'
node) for precise details of how the environment  variables  are  used.
The kpsewhich utility can be used to query the values of the variables.

One  caveat:  In  most  TeX formats, you cannot use ~ in a filename you
give directly to TeX, because ~ is an active character,  and  hence  is
expanded,  not  taken as part of the filename.  Other programs, such as
Metafont, do not have this problem.

TEXMFOUTPUT
Normally, TeX puts its output files in  the  current  directory.
If  any  output file cannot be opened there, it tries to open it
in the directory specified in the environment variable TEXMFOUT-
PUT.  There is no default value for that variable.  For example,
if you say tex paper and the current directory is not  writable,
if  TEXMFOUTPUT  has  the  value  /tmp,  TeX  attempts to create
/tmp/paper.log (and /tmp/paper.dvi, if any output is produced.)

TEXINPUTS
Search path for \input and \openin files.  This should  probably
start  with  ``.'',  so  that user files are found before system
files.  An empty path component will be replaced with the  paths
defined  in  the  texmf.cnf file.  For example, set TEXINPUTS to
".:/home/usr/tex:"  to  prepend  the   current   directory   and
``/home/user/tex'' to the standard search path.

TEXFORMATS
Search path for format files.

TEXPOOL
search path for tex internal strings.

TEXEDIT
Command  template for switching to editor.  The default, usually
vi, is set when TeX is compiled.

TFMFONTS
Search path for font metric (.tfm) files.

FILES
The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.
Use the kpsewhich utility to find their locations.

texmf.cnf
Configuration  file.   This contains definitions of search paths
as well as other configuration parameters like parse_first_line.

tex.pool
Text file containing TeX's internal strings.

texfonts.map
Filename mapping definitions.

*.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

*.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

\$TEXMFMAIN/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
The basic macro package described in the TeX for nroffbook.

NOTES
This manual page is not meant to be exhaustive.  The complete  documen-
tation for this version of TeX can be found in the info manual Web2C: A
TeX implementation.

BUGS
This version of TeX implements a number  of  optional  extensions.   In
fact,  many  of these extensions conflict to a greater or lesser extent
with the definition of TeX.  When such extensions are enabled, the ban-
ner printed when TeX starts is changed to print TeXk instead of TeX.

This  version  of TeX fails to trap arithmetic overflow when dimensions
are added or subtracted.  Cases where this occurs are rare, but when it
does the generated DVI file will be invalid.

mf(1),
Donald  E.  Knuth,  The  TeX  for nroffbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN
0-201-13447-0.
Leslie Lamport, LaTeX - A Document Preparation System,  Addison-Wesley,
1985, ISBN 0-201-15790-X.
K.        Berry,        Eplain:        Expanded        plain       TeX,
ftp://ftp.cs.umb.edu/pub/tex/eplain/doc.
Michael Spivak, The Joy of TeX for nroff, 2nd edition,  Addison-Wesley,
1990, ISBN 0-8218-2997-1.
TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

TRIVIA
TeX,  pronounced properly, rhymes with ``blecchhh.''  The proper spell-
ing in typewriter-like fonts is ``TeX'' and not ``TEX'' or ``tex.''

AUTHORS
TeX was designed by Donald E. Knuth, who implemented it using  his  Web
system  for  Pascal  programs.   It  was  ported to Unix at Stanford by
Howard Trickey, and at  Cornell  by  Pavel  Curtis.   The  version  now
offered  with the Unix TeX distribution is that generated by the Web to
C system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Morgan.

The encTeX extensions were written by Petr Olsak.

Web2C 2009                      6 December 2006                         TEX(1)
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