The XEmacs Editor
XEmacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor. This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
some of how to customize it, but not how to extend it. It corresponds
to XEmacs version 21.0.
This manual is intended as a detailed reference to XEmacs. If you
are looking for an introductory manual, see the New User's Guide.
- The GNU General Public License gives you permission
to redistribute XEmacs on certain terms; and also
explains that there is no warranty.
- How to get XEmacs.
- An introduction to XEmacs concepts.
- The glossary.
- What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix!
Indices, nodes containing large menus
- Key Index
- An item for each standard XEmacs key sequence.
- Command Index
- An item for each command name.
- Variable Index
- An item for each documented variable.
- Concept Index
- An item for each concept.
Important General Concepts
- How to interpret what you see on the screen.
- Keyboard gestures XEmacs recognizes.
- Pull-down Menus
The XEmacs Pull-down Menus available under X.
- Entering Emacs
Starting Emacs from the shell.
- Stopping or killing XEmacs.
- Command Switches
Hairy startup options.
- Startup Paths
How XEmacs finds Directories and Files.
- How XEmacs organizes its high-level functionality.
Fundamental Editing Commands
- The most basic editing commands.
- Undoing recently made changes in the text.
- Entering arguments that are prompted for.
- Invoking commands by their names.
- Commands for asking XEmacs about its commands.
Important Text-Changing Commands
- The mark: how to delimit a ``region'' of text.
- Mouse Selection
Selecting text with the mouse.
- Additional Mouse Operations
Other operations available from the mouse.
- Killing text.
- Recovering killed text. Moving text.
- Using X Selections
Using primary selection, cut buffers, and highlighted regions.
- Accumulating Text
Other ways of copying text.
- Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
- Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
- Controlling what text is displayed.
- Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
- Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
Larger Units of Text
- All about handling files.
- Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
- Viewing two pieces of text at once.
- Using world scripts.
- Major Modes
- Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ...
- Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
- Commands and modes for editing English.
- Commands and modes for editing programs.
- Compiling, running and debugging programs.
- How to define text abbreviations to reduce
the number of characters you must type.
- Editing pictures made up of characters
using the quarter-plane screen model.
- Sending Mail
- Sending mail in XEmacs.
- Reading Mail
- Reading mail in XEmacs.
- A Calendar and diary facility in XEmacs.
- Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within XEmacs.
- Executing shell commands from XEmacs.
- Restricting display and editing to a portion
of the buffer.
- Printing buffers or regions.
- Recursive Edit
A command can allow you to do editing
"within the command". This is called a
`recursive editing level'.
- Dissociated Press
- Dissociating text for fun.
- A different kind of dissociation.
- Various games and hacks.
- Emulating some other editors with XEmacs.
- Modifying the behavior of XEmacs.
Recovery from Problems.
- Quitting and aborting.
- What to do if XEmacs is hung or malfunctioning.
- How and when to report a bug.
Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:
--- The Detailed Node Listing ---
The Organization of the Frame
- The place in the text where editing commands operate.
- Echo Area
- Short messages appear at the bottom of the frame.
- Mode Line
- Interpreting the mode line.
- XEmacs under X
- Some information on using XEmacs under the X
- Intro to Keystrokes
- Keystrokes as building blocks of key sequences.
- Representing Keystrokes
- Using lists of modifiers and keysyms to
- Key Sequences
- Combine key strokes into key sequences you can
bind to commands.
- String Key Sequences
- Available for upward compatibility.
- Meta Key
- Using <ESC> to represent <Meta>
- Super and Hyper Keys
- Adding modifier keys on certain keyboards.
- Character Representation
- How characters appear in XEmacs buffers.
- How commands are bound to key sequences.
- File Menu
- Items on the File menu.
- Edit Menu
- Items on the Edit menu.
- Apps Menu
- Items on the Apps menu.
- Options Menu
- Items on the Options menu.
- Buffers Menu
- Information about the Buffers menu.
- Tools Menu
- Items on the Tools menu.
- Help Menu
- Items on the Help menu.
- Menu Customization
- Adding and removing menu items and related
- Introduction to XEmacs Packages.
- Package Terminology
- Understanding different kinds of packages.
- Installing Packages
- How to install packages.
- Building Packages
- Building packages from sources.
- Local.rules File
- An important part of building packages.
- Available Packages
- A brief directory of packaged LISP.
Basic Editing Commands
- Blank Lines
- Commands to make or delete blank lines.
- Continuation Lines
- Lines too wide for the frame.
- Position Info
- What page, line, row, or column is point on?
- Numeric arguments for repeating a command.
- Minibuffer File. Entering file names with the minibuffer.
- Minibuffer Edit. How to edit in the minibuffer.
- An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
- Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.
The Mark and the Region
- Setting Mark
- Commands to set the mark.
- Using Region
- Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
- Marking Objects
- Commands to put region around textual units.
- Mark Ring
- Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
- Kill Ring
- Where killed text is stored. Basic yanking.
- Appending Kills
- Several kills in a row all yank together.
- Earlier Kills
- Yanking something killed some time ago.
Using X Selections
- X Clipboard Selection
- Pasting to the X clipboard.
- X Selection Commands
- Other operations on the selection.
- X Cut Buffers
- X cut buffers are available for compatibility.
- Active Regions
- Using zmacs-style highlighting of the
- RegPos. Saving positions in registers.
- RegText. Saving text in registers.
- RegRect. Saving rectangles in registers.
- RegConfig. Saving window configurations in registers.
- RegFiles. File names in registers.
- RegNumbers. Numbers in registers.
- Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.
Controlling the Display
- Moving text up and down in a window.
- Horizontal Scrolling
- Moving text left and right in a window.
- Selective Display
- Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
- Display Vars
- Information on variables for customizing display.
Searching and Replacement
- Incremental Search
- Search happens as you type the string.
- Non-Incremental Search
- Specify entire string and then search.
- Word Search
- Search for sequence of words.
- Regexp Search
- Search for match for a regexp.
- Syntax of regular expressions.
- Search Case
- To ignore case while searching, or not.
- Search, and replace some or all matches.
- Other Repeating Search
- Operating on all matches for some regexp.
- Unconditional Replace
- Replacing all matches for a string.
- Regexp Replace
- Replacing all matches for a regexp.
- Replacement and Case
- How replacements preserve case of letters.
- Query Replace
- How to use querying.
Commands for Fixing Typos
- Kill Errors
- Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
- Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
- Fixing Case
- Correcting case of last word entered.
- Apply spelling checker to a word, or a whole file.
- File Names
- How to type and edit file name arguments.
- Visiting a file prepares XEmacs to edit the file.
- Saving makes your changes permanent.
- Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
- Auto Save
- Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
- Version Control
- Version control systems (RCS and SCCS).
- Listing the contents of a file directory.
- Comparing Files
- Finding where two files differ.
- ``Editing'' a directory to delete, rename, etc.
the files in it.
- Misc File Ops
- Other things you can do on files.
- How XEmacs saves the old version of your file.
- How XEmacs protects against simultaneous editing
of one file by two users.
- Backup Names. How backup files are named;
Choosing single or numbered backup files.
- Backup Deletion. XEmacs deletes excess numbered backups.
- Backup Copying. Backups can be made by copying or renaming.
Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters
- Auto Save Files.
- Auto Save Control.
- Recovering text from auto-save files.
- Concepts of VC
- Basic version control information;
checking files in and out.
- Editing with VC
- Commands for editing a file maintained
with version control.
- Variables for Check-in/out
- Variables that affect the commands used
to check files in or out.
- Log Entries
- Logging your changes.
- Change Logs and VC
- Generating a change log file from log
- Old Versions
- Examining and comparing old versions.
- VC Status
- Commands to view the VC status of files and
look at log entries.
- Renaming and VC
- A command to rename both the source and
master file correctly.
- How to make and use snapshots, a set of
file versions that can be treated as a unit.
- Version Headers
- Inserting version control headers into
- Making Snapshots
- The snapshot facilities.
- Snapshot Caveats
- Things to be careful of when using snapshots.
Dired, the Directory Editor
- Dired Enter. How to invoke Dired.
- Dired Edit. Editing the Dired buffer.
- Dired Deletion. Deleting files with Dired.
- Dired Immed. Other file operations through Dired.
Using Multiple Buffers
- Select Buffer
- Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
- List Buffers
- Getting a list of buffers that exist.
- Misc Buffer
- Renaming; changing read-onliness; copying text.
- Kill Buffer
- Killing buffers you no longer need.
- Several Buffers
- How to go through the list of all buffers
and operate variously on several of them.
- Basic Window
- Introduction to XEmacs windows.
- Split Window
- New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
- Other Window
- Moving to another window or doing something to it.
- Pop Up Window
- Finding a file or buffer in another window.
- Change Window
- Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
- Choosing Modes
- How major modes are specified or chosen.
- Indentation Commands
- Various commands and techniques for indentation.
- Tab Stops
- You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then
indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
- Just Spaces
- You can request indentation using just spaces.
Commands for Human Languages
- Text Mode
- The major modes for editing text files.
- Nroff Mode
- The major mode for editing input to the formatter nroff.
- TeX Mode
- The major modes for editing input to the formatter TeX.
- Outline Mode
- The major mode for editing outlines.
- Moving over and killing words.
- Moving over and killing sentences.
- Moving over paragraphs.
- Moving over pages.
- Filling or justifying text
- Changing the case of text
- TeX Editing. Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
- TeX Print. Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
- Outline Format. What the text of an outline looks like.
- Outline Motion. Special commands for moving through outlines.
- Outline Visibility. Commands to control what is visible.
- Auto Fill
- Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
- Fill Commands
- Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
- Fill Prefix
- Filling when every line is indented or in a comment, etc.
- Program Modes
- Major modes for editing programs.
- Expressions with balanced parentheses.
There are editing commands to operate on them.
- Each program is made up of separate functions.
There are editing commands to operate on them.
- Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
- Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.
- Inserting, filling and aligning comments.
- Balanced Editing
- Inserting two matching parentheses at once, etc.
- Lisp Completion
- Completion on symbol names in Lisp code.
- Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
- Change Log
- Maintaining a change history for your program.
- Go directly to any function in your program in one
command. Tags remembers which file it is in.
- CC Mode
- Modes for C, C++, Java and similar languages
- Fortran mode and its special features.
- Asm Mode
- Asm mode and its special features.
Indentation for Programs
- Basic Indent
- Multi-line Indent
- Commands to reindent many lines at once.
- Lisp Indent
- Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
- Tag Syntax
- Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
- Create Tags Table
- Creating a tags table with `etags'.
- Select Tags Table
- How to visit a tags table.
- Find Tag
- Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
- Tags Search
- Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
- List Tags
- Listing and finding tags defined in a file.
- Fortran Motion. Moving point by statements or subprograms.
- Fortran Indent. Indentation commands for Fortran.
- Fortran Comments. Inserting and aligning comments.
- Fortran Columns. Measuring columns for valid Fortran.
- Fortran Abbrev. Built-in abbrevs for Fortran keywords.
- ForIndent Commands. Commands for indenting Fortran.
- ForIndent Num. How line numbers auto-indent.
- ForIndent Conv. Conventions you must obey to avoid trouble.
- ForIndent Vars. Variables controlling Fortran indent style.
Compiling and Testing Programs
- Compiling programs in languages other than Lisp
(C, Pascal, etc.)
- Lisp Modes. Various modes for editing Lisp programs, with
different facilities for running the Lisp programs.
- Lisp Libraries. Creating Lisp programs to run in XEmacs.
- Lisp Eval. Executing a single Lisp expression in XEmacs.
- Lisp Debug. Debugging Lisp programs running in XEmacs.
- Lisp Interaction. Executing Lisp in an XEmacs buffer.
- External Lisp
- Communicating through XEmacs with a separate Lisp.
- Loading libraries of Lisp code into XEmacs for use.
- Compiling Libraries
- Compiling a library makes it load and run faster.
- Converting Mocklisp to Lisp so XEmacs can run it.
- Defining Abbrevs
- Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
- Expanding Abbrevs
- Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
- Editing Abbrevs
- Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
- Saving Abbrevs
- Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
- Dynamic Abbrevs
- Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
- Basic Picture
- Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
- Insert in Picture
- Controlling direction of cursor motion
after "self-inserting" characters.
- Tabs in Picture
- Various features for tab stops and indentation.
- Rectangles in Picture
- Clearing and superimposing rectangles.
- Mail Format. Format of the mail being composed.
- Mail Headers. Details of allowed mail header fields.
- Mail Mode. Special commands for editing mail being composed.
Running Shell Commands from XEmacs
- Single Shell
- How to run one shell command and return.
- Interactive Shell
- Permanent shell taking input via XEmacs.
- Shell Mode
- Special XEmacs commands used with permanent shell.
- Minor Modes
- Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on
independently of any others.
- Many XEmacs commands examine XEmacs variables
to decide what to do; by setting variables,
you can control their functioning.
- Keyboard Macros
- A keyboard macro records a sequence of keystrokes
to be replayed with a single command.
- Key Bindings
- The keymaps say what command each key runs.
By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
- The syntax table controls how words and expressions
- Init File
- How to write common customizations in the init file.
- Audible Bell
- Changing how XEmacs sounds the bell.
- Changing the fonts and colors of a region of text.
- X Resources
- X resources controlling various aspects of the
behavior of XEmacs.
- Examining or setting one variable's value.
- Easy Customization
- Convenient and easy customization of variables.
- Edit Options
- Examining or editing list of all variables' values.
- Per-buffer values of variables.
- File Variables
- How files can specify variable values.
- Basic Kbd Macro
- Defining and running keyboard macros.
- Save Kbd Macro
- Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
- Kbd Macro Query
- Keyboard macros that do different things each use.
Customizing Key Bindings
- Definition of the keymap data structure.
Names of XEmacs's standard keymaps.
- How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
- Disabling a command means confirmation is required
before it can be executed. This is done to protect
beginners from surprises.
The Syntax Table
- Syntax Entry. What the syntax table records for each character.
- Syntax Change. How to change the information.
The Init File
- Init Syntax
- Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
- Init Examples
- How to do some things with an init file.
- Terminal Init
- Each terminal type can have an init file.
Dealing with XEmacs Trouble
- Stuck Recursive
- `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
- Screen Garbled
- Garbage on the screen.
- Text Garbled
- Garbage in the text.
- Unasked-for Search
- Spontaneous entry to incremental search.
- Emergency Escape
- Emergency escape---
What to do if XEmacs stops responding.
- Total Frustration
- When you are at your wits' end.
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